The 4 of December of 1,999 UNESCO declared Ibiza Patrimony of the Humanity recognizing therefore the universal dimension of some of the natural and historical values that during centuries have characterized to the Pitiusas island.A long process of work culminated therefore that, under epígrafe of “Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture”, to each other vindicated the world-wide importance of interrelated natural and cultural goods.
Authenticity, technical perfection, exceptional nature and excellent state of conservation are the values recognized by UNESCO the properties inherited from parents of Ibiza, elements that this organism has praised for its preservation.
The inclusion of Ibiza in the list of Goods Patrimony of the Humanity takes implicit to an international prestige associate to criteria of singularity and universal value.
It is essential that the wealth of a patrimony that is proud the natives of ibiza maintains its maximum splendor for all that that wishes to know it. The fortified city of Dalt Vila, the Phoenician deposit of sa Creek, the Punic Necrópolis of Puig DES Molins and the Natural Reserve of ses Salines, the four declared goods World-wide Patrimony, constitute the alive memory of islands that they the future confront with the optimism and the serenity that the fact that confers their cultural and natural values enjoy world-wide recognition.
Under the prism of this consideration, the city of Ibiza accepts the challenge warmly to spread and to conserve its patrimonial essence before the rest of the humanity, being assumed therefore the commitment that corresponds to him.
Cultural landscape of Universal meaning
The Pitiusas is located to the South of the Balearic Islands. Its geographic location, favored by the sea currents, constituted from the antiquity in a strategically important point for the routes of Mediterranean navigation between east and the West.
This fact favored the establishment of diverse cultures and the creation of an urban nucleus that has its origin in the arrival of the Phoenicians, representatives of a frenetic commercial activity in all the Mediterranean area, that made of Ibiza an important mercantile enclave whose maximum splendor agreed with the Punic time.
From he himself period they date the rural colonization and the operation of the natural resources, as well as its main industry: the salinera activity.
Exceptional cultural and landscaping wealth
Century II, Ibiza became federated city of Rome acquiring the characteristics characteristic of this new culture. The years of commercial and agricultural prosperity they followed times of restlessness and invasions that were repeated throughout all history and reinforced the strategic nature of this earth. The vandals the first and Arabs later, fortify the city and settled down watchtowers in their solitary coasts. They closed the space with defenses but it was open to other cultures.
In the Natural Reserve of ses Salines, most of the prairies they are very dense, with but of 700 haces/m2, data that reflects its excellent state of conservation.
On the other hand, the process of flowering of these plants is a rare phenomenon, that in the few described cases does not exceed the period of September to November. In the prairies pitiusas the flowering process not only takes place annually but that takes place in a period of superior time: between the months of September and March.
Finally, the prairies build natural reefs - that in Ibiza reach up to 4 meters of height which they create authentic natural monuments of millenarian age which the formation and coastal stability of beaches and systems protect the coast simultaneously facilitating dunares. They constitute, therefore, an element of great importance on adjacent terrestrial means, and give rise to cultural landscapes of great value where a rich biodiversity is concentrated, with exceptional endemic units.
Nature and culture
Exceptional they are also the archaeological deposits: sa Creek, to constitute a model of Phoenician town that allows to include/understand the geostrategic routes of old navigation, and the Puig of the Molins, to offer the series amplest and varied of pieces Punic Phoenicians and.
The material findings of the Necrópolis are an archaeological source important to evaluate the interactions and interchanges between the Punic-ebusitana society with centers of he himself cultural scope and other civilizations of the Mediterranean (Greek, Roman, íberos, Egyptian…).
SA CALETA PHOENICIAN TOWN
Through sea the Phoenicians arrived, who settled in the proximities of the natural place that conforms the zone of ses Salines. The establishment of sa Creek, declared Well of cultural interest in 1.993, conserves an important archaeological registry.
The Phoenician town was left at the beginning of the century I SAW to C. Being transferred its population to the Puig de Vila, where the city of Ibiza arose.
Next to the Acropolis the PUNIC NECROPOLIS OF PUIG DES MOLINS, declared Well of Interés Cultural (BIC) in 1.987 is located. It contains numerous hipogeos (underground funeral cameras) in addition to other types of tombs Phoenicians, Punic and Roman.
These archaeological deposits constitute a matchless testimony of the Mediterranean Phoenician-Punic civilization in general and of the old history of the Pitiusas in individual.
The fortified city acquires from century XVI a new appearance that has lasted until today, having expanded extrawalls and forming the districts of sa Penya, the Navy and Twig of King.
Diverse historical sources speak of the walls that protected the city of outer attacks. The different civilizations that followed one another molded the city according to the necessities of every time. In century XVI, before the danger situation which vivia the Mediterranean, along with the state of the old medieval walls that had been left absoletas before the new warlike systems, Felipe II promoted the construction of the Renaissance walls, declared National Monument in 1.942.
The walled enclosure has equipped to the city of an image as soon as altered by the passage of time, since he has practically remained intact from his construction in century XVI. The integrity of the enclosure must to diverse cirscunstancias, among them the little city-planning impulse of the city at the end of century XIX and principles of the XX, that in Ibiza shaped in urbanizations extrawalls that at the moment conform the architectonic and natural surroundings of Dalt Vila.
Unalterable it has also remained the structure of the Punic Necrópolis, that conserves a great number of graves of diverse tipología, and the Phoenician town of sa Creek, that has maintained the original structure of the western Phoenician enclaves when not undergoing later destructions nor reusabilities.
The integrity of the archaeological rest that offers the Phoenician town of sa Creek allows to include/understand its magnitude, that agglutinates a series of architectonic tipologías and original road plots of the Phoenician phase. On the other hand, the Necrópolis of Puig DES Molins emphasizes on other deposits of the same characteristics by the almost complete conservation of its superfñicie to not to have been object of later city-planning performances.
In century XVI Spanish Corona had to s or service three important Italian engineers that they modernized and they designed numerous fortifications in teritorio peninsular and Italian. These teachers brought with himself important advances in the construction of the fortification and its universalist reach was shaped in the numerous fortifications of America and the Philippines.
In his policy of defense of the Mediterranean, Felipe II promoted the renovation of the old medieval walls of the city doing of this one the best bastion defended of the western Mediterranean; for it he used the military constructive technique of the Renaissance, applying the advanced Italian models more to the fortified with bastions fortification of Ibiza.
The enclosure, that conserves the original layout of century XVI, was projected by the Italian engineer Giovanni Battista Calvi, and later modified and extended by Jacobo Paleazzo Fratín. It constitutes a masterpiece of the Renaissance and is an essential scientific reference of which better they are conserved at the present time for the study of the military constructive techniques of the Hispano-American School of Fortified with bastions Fortification.
All the mentioned characteristics of the declared goods Patrimony of the Humanity as much turn them exceptional from the historical point of view like medioambienta.
The clarity and purity of waters pitiusas are product of the extensive prairies of posidonias and its good state of conservation. Its existence favors the diversity of biological communities exceptionally conserved, some of high scientific interest by its peculiarity in; western editerráneo (caespitosa Cladocora and esponfíjeros bottoms). Also, it lodges a rich biodiversity, acting like “hatchering” (reproduction and day-care center of alevines) of numerous species.
The plant of posidonia is one fanerógama endemic of the Mediterranean in alarming regression by its high sensitivity to the environmental perturvaciones.
After the conquest of the Catalan troops in century XIII, the millenarian city returned to the scope of the western civilization. One of the symbols of that time is the church of Santa Maria, present cathedral, raised in the culminating point of the Acropolis, under protection of the Castle.
Ibiza was constituted, then, like crossroads of successive civilizations that have left their track in the humanized landscape where it shapes the interrelation of the man and the nature.
Associative cultural landscape
The landscape that offers the island is been final from mochos centuries of symbiosis between the man and the nature. Dalt Vila is an exponent of visual interrelation of architecture and surroundings. Not only it has conserved the same silhouette from the Average Age but that, when dominating a rocky promontory on the sea, his image has remained inalterable as much from the marine surroundings as terrestrial. Other example commendable of association between landscapes and activity human is ses Feixes, which they appear in the patrimonial surroundings of bienens and are old orchards of Arab tradition with a peculiar system of irrigation, which they extended by the North shore of the bay of Ibiza, forming part of his cultural landscape.
Ses Salines, on the other hand, located in the ends of the Natural Reserve of Ibiza and Formentera, perfectly acts this as of balance and symbiosis between the cultural value of the millenarian citizen life of Dalt Vila and the natural value of the own reserve with their exceptional ecosystems and prairies of posidonia.
The declared goods Patrimony of the Humanity form an interrelated set perfectly, synthesis of the millenarian history of the island and the harmonic relation that during centuries have maintained the man and the nature. That harmonía has given its fruit in a humanized landscape that maintains that delicate balance that is the fehaciente demonstration of which the operation of a zone not necessarily has to be fought with its conservation like natural space of first order equipped with a wealth in biodiversity.
The prairies of posidonia, the fortified city of Dalt Vila, the Phoenician deposit of sa Creek, and the Necrópolis of the Puig of the Molins is synthesis of our cultural and natural wealth; an inherited complete patrimony of our ancestors to those who it unites our recognition to us and to have to transmit it to coming generations.
A challenge that we will share with the rest of the humanity.